Cultural Resource Management Specialists

Cultural Resource Management Specialists

Cultural Resource Management SpecialistsCultural Resource Management SpecialistsCultural Resource Management Specialists

Archaeology, Evaluations, Surveys, Mitigation, Section 106 Guidance

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What We Offer

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Primary Business Load

Our primary objective is to get the project through to construction with a full evaluation of Cultural Resources that may be present. Surveys, structural investigations, archival investigation, map analysis, walkover surveys, cemetery true limits surveys, geophysical surveys and other methodologies are all part of that process.


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Secondary Business Load

We have specialist knowledge, including Census tabulation analysis, map comparisons, knowledge based surveys, industrial sites archaeology and a variety of other site-type knowledge specialities that set us apart from the typical domestic sites archaeology firm. Broken dishes are fine, but if you want broad-based knowledge, then check us out.

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Bureaucratic Wrangling

We work to get you through the regulatory process and based on our approach, will be energetic about arguing for clearances based on our past experience. We try to keep the gears meshing to move forward.


Detailed Offerings

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Project Evaluations

Before you commit, we go in and tell you if there are "project killer's" that will affect your bottom line. You can make an informed decision about whether to proceed.

Graveyard True Limits Survey

We determine the extent of a graveyard so that your planners can decide they can work with it or not.

Walk-Over Surveys

We walk over your property to see what may affect the viability of a project so that you will have good intel on what will cost you in the future and how much. Bottom line is that you are able to decide whether it's go or no-go for your project.

Phase I Surveys

We have pioneered mechanical means of survey that cost less and are far better than digging holes; and we also do the standard screened shovel testing of suitable terrain. We are also very conservative on what we recommend for further work.

Geophysical Survey

Metal Detector surveys, resistivity, magnetometer and Ground Penetrating Radar are offered. We show you what's below the ground on a project before you dig.

Phase II Significance Assessment Surveys

We evaluate a site for National Register eligibility based on standard practices and recommend for or against eligibility. We are also very conservative on what we recommend for NRHP eligibility.

Primary Services

Evaluations

Graveyard True Limits Survey

Graveyard True Limits Survey

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Before you commit, we go in and tell you if there are "project killer's" that will affect your bottom line. You can make an informed decision about whether to proceed. The depth of study depends on what the project needs.


Evaluations range from a simple records check with associated terrain analysis to full-on archival, walkover, and official records check.

Graveyard True Limits Survey

Graveyard True Limits Survey

Graveyard True Limits Survey

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We determine the extent of a graveyard so that your planners can decide they can work with it or not. This is done by mechanical means to put a buffer around the outside of the graveyard.


This photo is an example of some of the oddities that exist in studies of this sort where an Irish Catholic and an Irish Protestant couple were united for eternity and circumvented religious power struggle rivalries.

Walk-Over Surveys

Graveyard True Limits Survey

Walk-Over Surveys

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We walk over your property to see what may affect the viability of a project so that you will have good intel on what will cost you in the future and how much. Bottom line is that you are able to decide whether it's go or no-go for your project. How much investigation is up to you and what the project needs for an informed decision.


This investigation is limited to above ground observation and is best done when there are no leaves to obscure seeing the ground.

Phase I Surveys

Phase II Significance Assessment Surveys

Walk-Over Surveys

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We have pioneered mechanical means of survey that cost less and are far better than digging holes; and we also do the standard screened shovel testing of suitable terrain. We are also very conservative on what we recommend for further work.


Phase I testing is usually 50' spaced screened shovel tests, mapping of results and a report of the findings.

Geophysical Survey

Phase II Significance Assessment Surveys

Phase II Significance Assessment Surveys

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Metal Detector surveys, resistivity, magnetometer and Ground Penetrating Radar are offered. We show you what's below the ground on a project before you dig. We have done the only underwater resistivity survey in the world.


This image shows the 1622 Falling Creek Ironworks Furnace investigated by magnetometry. The concentration of black & white bands at the lower left show the furnace location.

Phase II Significance Assessment Surveys

Phase II Significance Assessment Surveys

Phase II Significance Assessment Surveys

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We evaluate a site for National Register eligibility based on standard practices and recommend for or against eligibility. We are also very conservative on what we recommend for NRHP eligibility.


This is the next step up from a Phase I Survey and determines whether sites found at the Phase I level are NRHP eligible.


This will involve archival work, sub-surface texting and analysis of finds for the report.

Services We Offer

Map Analysis

Archival Investigation

Archival Investigation

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A good map is priceless. We look at all of the maps that show your project. And we compare them to see what details they show of your property.

Archival Investigation

Archival Investigation

Archival Investigation

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We look at the DHR database for recorded sites and structures and use that information to see if your project has similar landforms. And we investigate other databases.

Census Investigation

Archival Investigation

Census Investigation

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Land Tax Analysis

Finding The Invisibles

Census Investigation

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These show you who owned the land back through time and what buildings were on it.

Title Search

Finding The Invisibles

Finding The Invisibles

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These give you a chain of title past the standard 60 years. These often help show when buildings were constructed after outparcel sales to heirs. This stone is a boundary marker from a 1715 Huguenot patent in Chesterfield County.

Finding The Invisibles

Finding The Invisibles

Finding The Invisibles

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African-Americans, poor whites, First Nations people: all of these can be invisible in the records. We use records to find them and to place them on the map.

KNOWLEDGE BASED SPECIALTIES

CIVIL WAR FORTS

VIRGINIA FORTIFICATIONS

CIVIL WAR CAMPSITES

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Fort Trenholm, Johns Island, SC was cleared of trees, contour mapped, and then this map showing how the parts functioned was the final result.

CIVIL WAR CAMPSITES

VIRGINIA FORTIFICATIONS

CIVIL WAR CAMPSITES

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These increasingly looted sites offer valuable information on troop movements, battlefield dispositions and military history not otherwise available.

VIRGINIA FORTIFICATIONS

VIRGINIA FORTIFICATIONS

FIRST SETTLER LAND PATENTS

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Virginia started with a fort in 1607. Forts were built as settlements pushed west. More forts were built to guard against incursions from the west in two wars. And then there was the Civil War.

FIRST SETTLER LAND PATENTS

FIRST SETTLER LAND PATENTS

FIRST SETTLER LAND PATENTS

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Who first got a land patent from the Crown for the land you own? We can find out and trace the title chain too.

WHAT'S ON YOUR LAND?

FIRST SETTLER LAND PATENTS

WHAT'S ON YOUR LAND?

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Depending on your needs, we find out what happened on your property from the First Nations to the near past.

RIPARIAN SITES

FIRST SETTLER LAND PATENTS

WHAT'S ON YOUR LAND?

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We have surveyed for and worked with sites in between the river banks, evaluated them and have formulated strategies to deal with them. Fish trap anchor holes are shown in red above.

STRUCTURAL RECORDING & INVESTIGATION

Recording Buildings

Timber Framing Diagrams

Recording Buildings

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Buildings older than 50 years are recorded in the DHR system. This is a standard survey procedure.

Functional Analysis

Timber Framing Diagrams

Recording Buildings

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What this building did for a living is the focus of investigation; and how that changed over time.

Timber Framing Diagrams

Timber Framing Diagrams

Timber Framing Diagrams

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Timber Framing changes by builders. Producing timber framing diagrams are artworks in themselves and show how individual builders constructed barns.

Building Evaluation

Detailed Histories Of Construction

Timber Framing Diagrams

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Buildings often have more to offer than the structure. This "graffiti" records a tree planted at the Charles City County Court House that later appeared in photographs.

Comparative Analysis

Detailed Histories Of Construction

Detailed Histories Of Construction

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How is one building different from similar buildings? We get the details from similar structures and compare them to the building under study. The differences can be striking.

Detailed Histories Of Construction

Detailed Histories Of Construction

Detailed Histories Of Construction

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This 1840's squat pile of a building hid an entire 18th century 1.5 storey house with additions. Recognizing that it was altered and then how it was altered was the focus.

KNOWLEDGE BASED INPUT, SOME SPECIALTIES

MILLS

MILLS

MILLS

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In 1880 there were 1688 mills in VA. We know mills. We find them, evaluate them and recommend to you what to do with them, and that includes doing nothing. This is a schematic of a complete mill from Oliver Evans who systematized milling.


Most mills are a few walls without internal structure and are recorded and recommended for no further work.

IRON

MILLS

MILLS

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There were over 100 charcoal era iron furnaces in VA that Tom Brady located, along with forges, foundries and ironworks. We know iron. This is Noble Furnace with the only surviving casting shed in VA, now used as a cow barn.


These structures are among the least understood industrial sites in VA. Avoidance is the best policy.

SLAG

MILLS

COAL MINES

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Slag is the waste by-product of iron smelting and iron working. 


  1. Furnaces produce glassy slag, an unique material that has the complete technological history of that furnace.
  2. Forges produce bubbly slag that will stain your fingers red from ferric oxides (rust) and black from charcoal.
  3. Foundries produce a dense slag with small bubbles that on the surface appears as ropey or knuckly.
  4. Bloomery slag is produced directly from iron ore and is also bubbly.

COAL MINES

ARCHAEOLOGY OF INDUSTRY

COAL MINES

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Midlothian has the oldest commercial coal mines in the New World. We know mines. We locate them and advise you on what to do about them if they're present. This photo shows clinker from the first use of steam engines in 1816 to dewater mines.


We have guided developers through the issues associated with surface sites and with the subsurface problems associated with them.

TECHNO-CHANGE

ARCHAEOLOGY OF INDUSTRY

ARCHAEOLOGY OF INDUSTRY

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How life changed with technology is a knowledge field in which I have specialized for decades. This is an evolved McCormick reaper that revolutionized grain harvesting.


Abandoned farm implement dumps are common. We record them and the project proceeds because we know the machinery.

ARCHAEOLOGY OF INDUSTRY

ARCHAEOLOGY OF INDUSTRY

ARCHAEOLOGY OF INDUSTRY

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Most Archaeologists are domestic sites trained; but we have a wide spread of industrial knowledge that gets you to the finish without additional work. This photo shows a 17th century slitting mill at Saugus, MASS.


We look at the impact of industry in VA from water power to steam to electrical power and have a large knowledge base for conservatively evaluating all of them.

ALL THINGS CANALS

ALL THINGS CANALS

ALL THINGS CANALS

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Canals were the mass cargo haulers (ie, the first tractor trailer trucks) inland in VA. We know canals, canal structures, canal history and canal boats.


This is Boat 2, a 90' long freight boat abandoned at Maymont Park until a project affected it. Investigation showed it to be largely intact with huge info-potential.

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